2012 10 18 324

Herdbook number: 172/TK/84
Number of protection pronouncing law: According to the 1/1984. (XII. 13.) OKTH decree, the protection is maintained by the 147/2007 (XII.27) KvVM decree.
Signal and serial number of international convention: HUBN10007 SPA, HUBN20084, HUBN20085, HUBN20088, HUBN20089, HUBN 20090, HUBN20092, HUBN20093, HUAN20007 SAC (SCI) Natura 2000 areas
Extent of the area: 26 765.4 hectare
Name of the county: Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county
Names of the settlements: Boldogkőváralja, Arka, Fony, Mogyoróska, Regéc, Háromhuta, Nagyhuta, Kishuta, Komlóska, Makkoshotyka, Göncruszka, Gönc, Telkibánya, Bózsva, Nyíri, Füzér, Pusztafalu, Hollóháza.

Only the areas of Háromhuta, Komlóska and Makkoshotyka are affected from the settlements of Sárospatak micro region in the rate below:

Település

A település területe

(hektár)

A települések területét érintő ZTK területe

(hektár)

Területi arány

(%)

Háromhuta

3780,341

3545,263

93,782

Komlóska

2985,302

836,509

28,021

Makkoshotyka

1040,05

842,370

80,993

The Zemplén Landscape Protection Division is a relatively untouched and undisturbed area of our country. It falls far from the capital city and from big industrial centres, and partly this describes its tourism unexploration. It covers the most valuable parts of the Hernád, Bodrog, country border bounded triangle, considering nature conservation, which was formed in 1984, in 26 496 hectare. Maybe this is due to that it has managed to maintain its relative calmness, and undisturbance until now.
The landscape protection area is divided – geographically well separating – into two parts. Practically, these belong to the two basic lands of the mountain. The smaller part in the north is the Big-Milic-mountain range, while in the south, the central zone, the Háromhuta mountain range parts are included – this part affects the area of Sárospatak micro region. The edges of the mountain, as well as the basin of Mountain-alley are separated from the landscape protection district primarily because of the centuries-old – today more and more strengthening – antropogenic effects. The character of the landscape protection district, and the resulting problems are basically defined by the fact, that 85% of the area is forest.
The Zemplén-mountain is vulcanic origin. Essentially, it is made of young, approximately 12-15 million years old eruptions, which can be found in the surface or close to the surface. In the course of volcanic operation, initially rhyolit, andesite, dacite, and their tuff came into the surface. By the powerful eruptions, 100-200 m thick tuff accumulations have been generated in some places. The equally changing (in time and in its material) vulcanic activity has created an entire line of layered (strato) volcanos. The most significant role has passed to the erosion, in the creation of today’s image of geoological specimens. It formed and it still forms the land’s image according to the tectonic motions. The dissected cliffs (Rákóczi-stone, Pengőstone dacite cliffs) or the variable separating forms, lava-flow structures (e.g. pillar separated, dissected vulcanic plugs of Füzér castle hill or the origin vulcanic rift cliff crests of Pusztafalu Thief-mountain.) by the destructive processes are primarily valuable as landscape values. The land’s geological structure is varied by the Tortona and Szarmata-sea’s residues, which were pushed between the volcanoes. The vulcanic tuff – which fell into the sea – has covered and embedded to itself the former living plant and wildlife’s specimens in many directions, by creating a fossil quarry at the same time, in some other places. For example: the silicified and ashy tree trunks, the wood opal, the reed and cane leaf-prints, the snail-, shell-, fish-, and insect residues. Despite the unified considerable geological structure, we can find variable and interesting, rather than valuable rock materials close to the surface (in mineral deposits: quartz crystals, jaspers, obsidians, countless colour versions of opals, etc.). The precious metal mining was meant value in the area of Telki-mine. This little village was a prosperous mining town until the middle of the XIX. century. But the richer reefs were run out, and the excavation drillings weren’t able to show the exist of newer, economically cultivable quarries. The material remains – trial trenches – of gold and silver mining fall outside the border of the landscape protection district. The specific rock diversity of the land is the perlite. This strange, friable rock was used by our ancestors in glass production centuries ago. Today, its main function is in the building industry. It reaches 12-15 times the original volume of it, when it is bloated in high temperature, and so with this it becomes an excellent insulation. The Pálháza perlite mine – considering its capacity – which falls outside the landscape protection district, is in the fourth place in Europe. Exciting phenomenon in the mountain is the formation of the so-called „stoneseas”. The beginning of their formation can be dated to the time of the ice age, but it still lasts, due to erosive, weathering processes. Its quintessence, is that the consolidated – in relatively shallow layers – andesite has fell into smaller-bigger blocks and stone chumps by the brokening, caused by the frost. Such as, Peter-heaven stones, the Deerstone, the outskirts of Pengostone, the Boldogkőújfalu stonesea, etc.
The area of the landscape protection district is mainly high ranged, and its climate is highland-like. The closeness of Carpathias and the high mountain climate have an effect on the establisment of the climate. According to this, – despite the relatively big amount of sunshine – the summer is colder, wetter, the winter is colder, than in other lands of our country. The enforcement of the carpathian climate is clearly shown by a few figure. Against with the Hegyalja 450 mm yearly average, the amount of moisture reaches 850 mm in the northern border lands and in the higher-lying areas of the central zone. Certainly, this kind of change of the climate, has a direct effect on the plant life, and on the closely connecting composition of the wildlife.
Characteristically, wooden plant associations can be found in the area of landscape protection district. Main substance components are the native sessile oak, the beech, and the hornbeam. Linden-ash-sorb cliff forests appear on the rocky, stone outcrop mountain tops. Maples, wild fruits and birch trees occur by blends, which latter forms fabulous landscape value forest spots. The loyal follower of the rapid twisting mountain creeks is the deep green, winding lane of the alders. Today, the artificially immigrated pinewoods have a decisive role, which seize more and more area from the native species. Beyond the wooden associations, the middle-aged mountainious eradicative meadows have significant land forming role. The closeness of the Carpathians is surely indicated in its species composition. Their survival is due to the centuries-old management manners, the significant livestock keeping, and the regular mowing. With the wasteful flower abundance of eradicative meadows, we got to the most valuable plant joint of the landscape protection district, the herbaceouses. Its uniquely rich mountain meadows serve as a habitat for the syberian iris, the meadow gladiolus, for 14 orchid species and for other plant specialities. Their maintenance is only possible with regular mowing. Beside the mountanious meadows, the herbaceous plant life of closed forests is also exceptionally rich. The early spring, mass occuring flower of the carpathian beeches is the dentaria glandulosa. We can find the significant wintergreen species of the carpathian spruce belt in the beeches, but also in the planted spruce forests. The most significant home occurance of the uniflorous wintergreen is here. The more than hundred specimen production area of the shaded wintergreen can be considered as a gene reservation. The clubmoss grows exceptionally rich in the acidic soils. The claspy, windy, drunk and flat clubmosses are usually form a carpet in some places. Approximately 200 species of acidic soil mosses were written down, and in this we can find several species, which only occurs in this land, inside our country. The fresh hornbeam-oak spring flower carpet is given by the mass of sleeved ephemeral plant, dove flower, groovy and buttercup anemone. The rare native plant of oaks is the Schudic penny cress, which has got its name after the former first-class forestry engineer. The bilberry „forms a lawn” in the dry oaks, which expansive stains contain a red – which counted as a rarity in our country – evergreen leaf cranberry. The sheep fescue-grass – frequent in the Carpathians, but it is rare at us – is forming in hairgrass and sila lawns. A special sphagnum species, which occurs in cliff moss cushions – in Lackó-mountain – is unique in our country. The silicate sila lawns of Füzér castle hill are guards of several plant rarities. Its dominant plant is the sila fescue-grass and the hungarian stonestring. The occurance of the mountain breakstone and the golden fern is a botanical rarity. The bright yellow flower of golden alyssum shines far from the cliff walls (in the spring), while in the southern, eastern flatting lawns, the flower carpet of dwarfish iris flaunts in purple, yellow, and white colours. The carpathian style, relict spiraea plant association keeps the memory of the approximately 7000 years old hotter season.
We can find springfens and the deeper-lying lying, flattening fen meadow type areas of the valleys in the area of landscape protection district as an opposition of rocky prodution sites. The previous one’s representative is the Mogyorós-top springfen and willow fen, which inter alia are the marsh orchid, and the accompanying plant rarities of the peaty, marshmeadow along the Kemence-creek: prickly sedges, marsh ferns, white hepaticas and other leafy moss species. More smaller substances of cotton grass can be found along the valley, and the stream-side alder is the most beautiful, and richest ostrich fern quarry.
Connecting to the carpathian style flora of the landscape protection district, its wildlife is also exceptionally rich and variable. In this respect, broader surveys haven’t occured yet, only part details are known. Several, namely carpathian and sarmatian type snail species live here, from the bonelessess. Their representative is the huge blue carpathian slug, which excels from the others with its sizes (20-25 cm or more), and ultramarine, turquoise tone. It can be found after raining, in wet, humid medium. Many alpine and syberian spreading species occur amongst the butterflies, which are rare in our country. Including each weaver-, spanning-, and owl butterfly species, which – because of their really sporadic occurance – are mostly known only from their scientific name. The situation is similar with the species of dragonflies, caddisflies, mayflies and plecopteras. The land has several fascinating attractions, due to the bug species. The ground-beetles, delicate carabids, and the carpathian and zemplén carabids represent theirselves with their rich species list. These colourful predatory beetles are rarely get in front of our eyes, because of their hidden lifestyle. Not less exciting spectacular group is the capricorn beetle group. Beside the oak cerambyxes, poplar capricorn beetles, flower-, disc-, foot-, and the thorny capricorn beetles – all of these in small number – each specimens of alpine or stripy capricorn beetles are also occur. The stag-beetle is still not counted as a rarity, but the similar sized rhinoceros beetle is extremely rare.
Most home species of mammals and amphibians occur in this area. From the latter ones, maybe the spotted salamander and a particular subspecies of the alpine triton deserve separate mention. The significant frogs of the highland are the common frog and the yellow-bellied toad. Our largest lizard is the green lizard, which is not rare. Its relative, the brittle footless lizard resembles to the snakes from its outer appearance, but its moving eyelid certainly distinguishes it from those. The most common snake is the forest slider, which makes fright sometimes, with its really imposing sizes. The older specimens could reach, even exceed two meters, and compared to this, they also possess an appreciable body thickness. In a tight squeeze – in case it is catched – it bravely attacks and „bites”. The grass snake is relatively frequent, however we barely can find smooth snakes. The adder can be seen rarely, an average forest walker barely meets him. The more frequent and harmless slider (snake) species fall prey to the causeless and unwise hate, instead of the real threatening snake species.
The avifauna of large, closed forests are pretty rich. Several increasedly protected species are on the nesting species list. One of the biggest european eagle is the imperial eagle. Its main food is the fairly small – compared to its stature – ground-squirrel and the hamster. It is a treasured nesting bird of ours. The similar sized golden eagle is a frequent guest in the highlands. It has more serious prey animals on its menu, e.g. wild pig, fawn, fox, dog, etc. Its home nesting isn’t certified. The smaller, lesser spotted eagle is also a sporadically nesting animal. One of the most valuable and beautiful animal of ours is the lanner. Unfortunately, it broods in lesser numbers in the area from year to year. Sometimes, the peregrine falcon appears as rare wanderer. The short-toed eagle and the honey buzzard are sporadically nesting beside the common-like kestrel. The biggest theoretical value is being represented by the eagle owl and almost the same sized Ural owl. Rare nesting birds are the black storks and the hazel grouses. The increasing quantity black woodpecker is not counted as speciality nowadays.
Several protected mammal species live in the area of landscape protection district. The mustelids – beech marten, marten, ermine, weasel, skunk, badger – are practically undiscoverable. Their freshly left clues tells their presence. The meeting with them is almost impossible. The wild cat is the inhabitant of untouched, old forests. It lives a really careful, hidden life. The other cat-like predator of the highlands is the lynx. It is spreding well, if it finds good conditions. However, its protection – like the wolf, which also seems to settle back – isn’t solved, because the prohibitive paragraph isn’t enough by itself to form the human consciousness. The land’s big game popularity means significant financial and theoretical values. The carpathian „A” type hind can also be found, which trophy has a really beneficial feature (relatively bigger stalk length and thickness, proportional form, nice colour and fizzing, powerful, branchy crown). An individual livestock of wild boards lives in the area. Its feature is the conformity – which is also shown in external traits – to harsher circumstances, and the regular circle shape, which was formed by the two big tusks.
The most ancient clues of the mountain’s cultural history can be found in the stone age. Our ancestors drew attention to the researchers by creating stone tools. The on-site obsidian served as a perfect material for creating chipped equipments, and it could have formed the base of barter in hundreds of kilometres of the area by the increase of humanity. Attentive observers could often find chipped stone age equipments – which were brought to the surface by agriculture or erosion – on the edge of the mountain, in bigger valleys, as well as in mountain alleys. However, these are only random meetings, their scientifical, archeological digestions are pending.
Áprád-era castles and their ruins were left behind for us as more picturesque memories from the post-hungarian conquest times. One of the most beautiful castle – from landscape aspect – is the Fűzér castle. It is also fascinating in its ruins, with the sight of the crumbly walls on the top of the column separated rocks. Its building is set to the beginning of the XIII. century. Its final form was taken through serial redevelopments during the century. According to the saga, the royal crown was hidden in the cellars under the chapel by Péter Perényi after the Mohács battle. The castle doesn’t lie in a strategically important places, rather it served for wealth protection. In 1683, emperor Lipót has given out a command for the destruction of the walls – as a consequence of Thököly-battles. The other crumbly fortress ruins is Regéc. It could have built at the same time with Fűzér castle, but the inner tower castle form was shaped throughout the XVII, century. Concluding from the wall ruins, it could have been a much more monumental building than the other surrounding buildings. It still dominates the region with its ruinous condition. It has lived its golden ages as a property of Rákóczi family. Here hided Ilona Zrínyi with her son, Ferenc Rákóczi the II. It was blown up by the austrians in the 1680’s. The castle of Boldogkő is now placed in the edge – facing Hernád – of the mountain. Relatively unbroken remained castle of ours from the XIII. century. Its primary function could have been the insurance of military and merchant routes, which were guided towards Kassa. It never has been a border fortress, but it was frequent scene of inner discords. It has changed its owner many times after the death of Árpád-house. Initially, it was a lordship of Amadés, then Robert Károly, and later the Hunyadi family. Bálint Balassi has also been here. It hasn’t had any military importance during the Rákóczi war of independence. Luckily, it wasn’t blown up by the Habsburgs, like the rest. High preservation was in progress inside the castle after archaeological excavation (after the liberation), and now it is an important tourism value. Significantly lower importance building (in the line of castles) is the barely appearing Amadé-fortress ruins, which can be approached in the easiest way from Potács-house street, along the Gönc Big-lake. It was built by Amadé palatine in the end of the XIII. century, and it gave a refuge to Ulászló, the exiled polish king. In 1317, the castle was demolished by Róbert Károly, since the sons of Amadé have faced the king. Today, it is only recognizable from its crumbly, ruiny walls. Not far from the ruins of Amadé-castle, the relatively undamaged church walls of Gönc paulite monastery ruins are guarded by centuris-old beeches. The 1371 year establishment of the monastery is connected to Lajos Nagy’s name. There were some attempts in the past years for the rescue of the monastery, but there weren’t enough money to perform a valuable result.
Of course the culture historical memories can’t run out only with the mechanical listing of castles. Because, here we have the Telki-mine (for instance), the former prosperous mining town. Now, largely with its uncontrollable legend coloured mining past, ruined or partly intact, abandoned plants. Here is the famous headstone graveyard – settled around the church – on the top of the temple mount. Telki-mine was the location of the secret formation of the first hungarian porcelain factory. The remained material memories can be seen in the local industry historical collection. The memory of the centuries-old retrospective glass production only lives forth in the place names (Háromhuta, Kishuta, Nagyhuta, Vágáshuta), since the last glass workshop of the area in Regéc has closed its gates in 1916. Hollóháza is the direct descendant of the Telki-mine porcelain factory. Unfortunately, the industry historical important, interesting factory buildings were smashed and demolished.
The inner, closed settlements of the mountain – Háromhuta, Mogyoróska, Regéc – are still keeping the folk architecture masterpieces, and the centuries-old traditions. The major castles – before the liberation – of the area were in the property of Károlyi family. The Füzérradvány castle, with its surrounding marvelous park; a hunting castle (fitting to the environment) on the rocks of Stone-gate, which, quasi closes the Kemence-valley; or in the northernmost point of the country, the László-farm castle, which was built almost to the border of the country.

2010 12 19 060

2012 02 21 274

2012 08 05 163

2013 04 14 124

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