2010 03 21 291

Herdbook number: 183/TK/86
Number of protection pronouncing law: 165/2007. (XII. 27.) KvVM decree for the maintenance of TBTK
Serial number of the area regarding the International convention: HUBN10001 SPA, HUBN2007, HUBN20072 SAC (SCI) Natura 2000 area and RAMSARI area: 3782 hectare
Extent of the area: 5286.1 hectare (increasedly protected: 724 hectare)
Name of the county: Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén
Names of the settlements: Bodrogkeresztúr, Bodrogkisfalud, Olaszliszka, Szegi, Tarcal, Tiszaladány, Tokaj, Zalkod

The Bodrogzug part of Tokaj-Bodrogzug Landscape Protection District affects the area of Sárospatak micro region, notedly the outer area of Olaszliszka and Zalkod in the following rate:

Settlement

Area of settlement(ha)

The affecting TBTK areas of the settlements(ha)

Area ratio

(%)

Olaszliszka

3947,786

953,135

24,144

Zalkod

1021,539

218,613

21,400

The area of the landscape protection district is divided into three big part, the Tokaj Kopasz-mountain, Bodrogzug and Takta-alley. Since, – from the detached, basically different areas – only the Bodrogzug affects the micro region’s area, thus we only give the specification for this land:
The Bodrogzug lies on the northern border of moderately hot, dry climatic range, its climate – similarly to the Great Plain’s – extremely continental. Its hydrological conditions are defined basically by the water walk of Bodrog from the two rivers. Due to the big flood waves of Bodrog and the interacting Tisza, the area is under water for yearly 40-50 days, and in the wetter years, this number raises up to 100-150 days. To decrease the damage caused by the flooding, the existing summer dams, and the canal system (built for water drainage) prevents any other damages. Water discharge of the area is facilitated by the Zsaró-vein pumping plant, which pumps down the water from the area through the Zsaró-vein. The water remains in severeal dead beds after the cleanup of floodings through the year. Significant water bays: Kakukk-lake, Captain-lake, Remence, Big-lake, Bogdány-lake, Reed-lake, Black-lake, Walnut-vein, Zsaró-vein, Dicse-plain, Thirsty-plain, Kálmán-plain, Dead-Tisza. Despite the yearly persistent floodings in mort lakes, certain stillwater ecosystems have been formed. The present hydrographical and water walk relations of Bodrogzug – before waterway regulations – are similar to ancient conditions, so they represent an irrecoverable value for nature conservation.
The Bodrogzug – as a part land of Bodrogköz – is still a filling, alluvial plain.
Specific soils of Bodrozug are raw alluvial and meadowy alluvial soil. The dominants from the main types are: the flood meadowy soil, the meadowy type alluvial soil, and the fen meadow soil. Humic sand occurs at Zalkod. There are sand, clay and clay marl layers – subsided by the pannonian transregression – in high thickness, under the pleistocene and holocene formations. The Bodrogköz has sank heavily along the transverse fractures on the north-eastern and south-eastern side of Kopasz-mountain in the pleistocene era. Mostly northern-southern direction flowing water system has formed in its surface. Here flowed the the Tapoly, Ondava, Laborc, Ung and the Tisza and Bodrog, which were united on the northernest part formerly. The united Tisza and Bodrog were ran towards the Great Plain through the Zemplén cleavage. Those huge curves were formed at this period of time, which remains can be observed at present in the area of TK. The rivers have started to fill up the area with their alluvium, considerable amount of living water sand and pebble residues were dumped. Drift sand, wind carried dust (at the time of glacials), and loess formed from the last one’s exhaust. The additional occured prolapses – at the time of holocene – have changed the flow direction of the rivers. A big amount of sand surface was dressed down by the living water erosion of Tisza, in the area of Bodrogköz, and at the same time, it covered with its alluvium. Flood clay, meadowy clay, and flood silt formed in the old- and new holocene. Peat mud, humic clay and meadowy clay have piled up in the place of mort lakes. Alluviums are still formed continously by the opportunity of regular floodings. The dominant grain sizes are mainly the clayey, delicate sandy, which are being substituted by sandy, rough sandy grain sizes in higher depths.

Plant communities of Bodrog:

  • Kelp association: Floating watermoss – tasseled duckweed – floating kelp (Salvinio-Spirodeletum). Sporadically occuring associaton (Big-lake, Big Reedy-lake)
  • Frog bit – frog bit kelp (Hydrochari-Stratiotetum). Its substance can be found in various directions (Captain-lake, Kakuk-lake, Remence).
  • Curse-kelp association (Elodeetum canadensis). Occurs in the city lake, next to the Bodrogkisfalud ferry.
  • Large kelp (Myriophillo-Potamentum). Frequet association (Big-lake, Captain-lake). Frequent type: (Potametum lucentis). The rare (Potametum obtusifolius) only occurs in the Tökös-lake.
  • Water-lily kelp (Nymphaeetum albolutaea). The largest watery association, it has a big subtance, living everywhere.
  • Saligot kelp (Trapetum natantis). Occurs in Captain-lake, Big-lake and in Border-vein.
  • Fairy veil kelp (Nymphoidetum). Rare association, only occurs in the city lake, next to the Bodrogkisfalud ferry.
  • Reeds: Reed (Scirpophragmitetum medioeuropaeum). Typical in the edges of lakes, however there isn’t any extensive reed. Frequent reed is the consolidation of Scnoenoplectus and Glyceria.
  • Meadows:
    • High sedge (Caricetum gracilis). Frequent, significant association in the border zone of mort lakes.
    • Marsh csetkáka (Eleochretum palustris). Frequent, forms a mosaic with the high sedges in the edges of the lakes.
    • White bent grass marsh meadow (Agrostetum albae). It can be found in the entire Bodrogzug in a big area between the high sedgy and speargrass marshmeadow terrain.
    • Speargrass marshmeadow (Alopecuretum pratensis). The most expansive plant association is Bodrogzug (not only in the protected area, but also outer that area.). These meadows are regularly mowed, or grazed with a lower livestock.
    • Meadowy fescue-grass meadow (Festucetum pratensis). It occurs in the higher places, sides of dikes in a weedy condition.
    • Flood basin weed associations (Polygonatum hydropiperidis, Agrosti-Potentilletum anserinae). Frequent in smaller-larger spots on the flood basin.
  • Tree associations:
    • Grey willow (Salicetum cinereae). Frequent all along the rivers, lakes and stillwaters.
    • Willow gallery forest (Salicetum albae-fragilis). Generally spreaded in Bodrogzug. Hardwood gallery (Querco-Ulmetum). Its remaining substance is not fine, rather old oak trees sign the old places.

Increasedly protected plant species: Woolly pastern grass (Astragalus dasyanthus), woolly aster (Aster oleifolius), hungarian iris (Iris aphylla ssp. hungarica), hungarian pear (Pyrus magyarica), fringe flower (Himantoglossum caprinum).

Remarkable value, protected plant species: Cardinal orchis (Orchis purpurea), fuzzy flax (Linum hirsutum), shaggy feathergrass (Stipa dasyphylla), woolly milkvetch (Oxytropis pilosa), starry aster (i), neat feathergrass (Stipa pulcherrima), Debrecen horseradish (Armoracia macrocarpa) white water-lily (Nymphaea alba), mountain feathergrass (Stipa pennata), sandy bloodroot (Onosma arenari), serpent tongue blossom (Ophioglossum vulgatum), gentian (Gentiana pneumonanthe), grove grape (Vitis sylvestris), hare's foot trefoil (Phlomis tuberosa), downy pear (Pyrus nivalis), large mushroomgrass (Androsace maxima), summer snowflake (Leucojum aestivum), red cotoneaster (Cotoneaster integerrima), prairie periwinkle (Vinca herbacea), saligot (Trapa natans), syberian iris (Iris sibirica), cliff spiraea (Spiraea media), Tisza coast margaret flower (Leucanthemum serotinum), dwarfish almond (Amygdalus nana), martagon lily (Lilium martagon), fairy veil (Nymphoides peltata), greenish blossom (Platanthera chlorantha). Living plant species in the area of TK are not at direct risk. Only the illegal lawn breaking, grape colonization precending landscaping can cause any risks.

Increasedly protected mammal: Otter (Lutra lutra).

The following mammals are specific from the protected ones: 12 bat species, dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius), marten (Martes martes), wild cat (Felis sylvestris).

Increasedly protected bird species: Brown kite (Milvus migrans), lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina), gypsyduck, (Aythya nyroca), hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia), stripy-headed reed warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola), whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybridus), white claw falcon (Falco naumanni), black stork (Ciconia nigra), barn owl (Tyto alba), bee-eater (Merops apiaster), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), velvety harrier (Circus pygargus), corncrake (Crex crex), snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca), common spoonbill (Platalea leucorida), lanner (Falco cherrug), ortolan (Emberiza hortulana), small cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus), small heron (Egretta garzetta), short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus), rock throughsh (Monticola saxatilis), screech owl (Athene noctua), big nightingale (Luscinia luscinia), big heron (Egretta alba) imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca), meadowy horned owl (Asio flammeus), meadowy eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), roller (Coracias garrulus), dwarfish eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus), dwarfish crake (Porzana pusilla), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Ural owl (Strix uralensis), comet heron (Ardeola ralloides), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), red kite (Milvus milvus).

Priority protected bird species: Moustached goldfinch (Emberiza cia), night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), bewhiskered tit (Panurus biarmicus), brown harrier (Circus aeruginosus), grove cricket bird (Lucustella fluviatilis), bittern (Botaurus stellaris), crested lark (Galerida cristata), great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), hoopoe (Upupa epops), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), crane (Grus grus), honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), forest lark (Lululla arborea), black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), quail (Coturnix coturnix), wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria), pale geze (Hippolais pallida), wheatre-bird (Oenanthe oenanthe), holló (Corvus corax), kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), hobby falcon (Falco subbuteo), shoveller (Anas clypeata), warbler (Sylvia nisoria), bluethroat (Luscinia svecica), smutty tern (Chlidonias niger), nightjar (Caprimurgulus europaeus), meadow cricket bird (Lucustella naevia), redwing (Turdus iliacus), grey-headed woodpecker (Picus canus), kestrel (Falco tinunnculus).

Fishes: Mud-minnow (Umbra krameri), meadow rayfish (Misgurnus fossilis).

Outstanding from amphibians: Brown toad (Bufo bufo), brown spadefoot (Pelobates fuscus).

Reptiles: Wall lizard (Podarcis muralis), Agile lizard (Lacerta agilis), Sand lizard (Podarcis taurica), Green lizard (Lacerta viridis), adder (Vipera berus), copper funicular (Coronella austriaca).

Mulloscs: Burgundy snail (Helix pomatina).

Insects: Tisza flower (Palingenia longicauda), sawfoot grasshopper (Saga pedo).

Butterflies: Wolfapple butterfly (Zerynthia polyxena), swallow-tail butterfly (Papilio machaon), sword butterfly (Iphiclides podalirius), tiny apollo butterfly (Parnassius mnemosyne), Fót buttercup (Plebejus pylaon), whitewing golden span (Perconia strigillaria), C-letter golden owl (Lamprotes c-aureum).

The area is only exploitable periodically, due to floodings in Bodrogzug, mainly for grazing and mowing. Back in the days, 50 years ago, livestock keeping and the mowing of meadows were significant, but now it is only the fraction of all this. There is no reed management in the protected area. The area of Bodrogzug is under the protection of Ramsari, hunting is paused. A part of forests, which are living in Bodrogzug, can be found as natural associations in the area of Bodrog, Tisza and between the area of the dam, and its significant amount can be found at the flood basin (noble poplar, willow). Most parts of natural forests are defensive functioned, serving flood-prevention and nature conservation. Intervention is insignificant in these forests. Their maintenance and persistance are really important. Forest management happens based on an accepted and valid working plan. No residential area falls in the area of TK. Agricultural cultivation is significant in the surrounding settlements, and meadow-pasture management, livestock keeping, rare arable farming in the area of Bodrogzug. An odd perspective and a landscape value is the flooded (in the spring) Bodrogzug with the 6 hectare, shining, wind ruffled water surface.

 2008 07 03 141

2008 11 23 158

2009 02 22 178

2012 05 12 087

A weblap az Európai Mezőgazdasági és Vidékfejlesztési Alap, Magyarország Kormányának LEADER keretéből
a SIMONINFO Multimédia és Oktatási Kft. kivitelezésében valósult meg.

logo