2012 03 12 067

Areas, announced protected in a regulation by the government, are called locally important, protected natural areas. Considering their defence categories, they can be nature conservation areas (TT) or natural memories (TE). County-level protection announcing was started from 1971, when county councils and their executive committees have received this jurisdiction. Several protected natural areas have been created with the help of council regulations and VB county decrees (local) until 1990, an then when the local governments have been formed, the local protection declaration has moved to the town clerk’s competence. The protective declaration of protected natural areas and the care of their maintenance belongs to the competence of the settlement’s town council. The national registry of the locally important, protected natural areas is being led by the nature conservation finance ministry responsible (Herdbook of Protected Areas). In our country, the total number of the protected natural values is 2015, which are under the control and handle of the settlement’s town council. 63 of these can be found in our county. Three pieces of locally important, protected natural areas can only be found in Sárospatak – detailed below – from the 16 constructive settlement of Sárospatak micro region, which positions are shown in the XX. map attachment.

  1. SÁROSPATAK – CASTLE GARDEN

    Herdbook datas:
    Name: Castle garden
    Herdbook number: 4/19/TT/77
    County: Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén
    Settlement: Sárospatak
    Topographical number of the affected continent: 169
    EOV coordinates: X: 333264; Y: 836854
    Immunity level: locally important
    Defence category: TT
    Extent: 6.7 hectare
    Increasingly protected from this: 0 hectare
    Entry into operation: 1977
    Description:
    The starting point of the hungarian war of independence is the Sárospatak Rákóczi castle, which garden is mentioned by the sources since the XVI. century. The enthusiastic attendant of the area was Zsuzsanna Lórántffy, who created a renaissance garden here. She created the former orange garden, because she loved to be concerned with the so-called „italian trees”: orange, lemon, pomegranate, which for she built a greenhouse, where the plants spent the winter. And as the good weather came back, the southern fruit trees were settled back. She has sent the pomegrades also to Ferenc Rákóczi to his turkish banishment. A landscape garden – based on Henri Cavet’s plans – was created for the request of the Bretzenheim family in 1826, which still defines the structure of the garden. The emphasizable objects were the artificial hill, the cannon hill with the garden house and the bridges above the castle ditch from the sentimental garden details. Palm house was built in the foot of the castle walls, too. Today, the former garden’s memory is only kept by the old trees: we can find black locust with a 515 cm trunk perimeter (Robinia pseudoacacia), and here lives the second biggest, 406 cm trunk perimeter japanese pagoda tree of the country
    (Sophora japonica). The flowering ashes (Fraxinus ornus), with 360 and 375 trunk perimeter also deserve the methuselah designation. The trees are beautifully adorned by sycamores (Platanus x hybrida), mountain maples (Acer pseudoplatanus), lindens (Tilia spp.), field maples (Acer campestre), conkers (Aesculus hippocastanum), panicled rattle trees (Koelreuteria paniculata), heartleaf catalpas (Catalpa bignonioides). Nature conservation protection indicates the botanical value of the garden. which expands to Amber Hostel’s ambers, as well as to the plants of Kádár Kata-walkway which binds the church with the castle.

  2. SÁROSPATAK – SCHOOL GARDEN

    Herdbook datas:
    Name: School garden
    Herdbook number: 4/35/TT/81
    County: Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén
    Settlement: Sárospatak
    Topographical number of the affected continent: 1790
    EOV coordinates: X: 334281; Y: 836970
    Immunity level: locally important
    Defence category: TT
    Extent: 7.5 hectare
    Increasingly protected from this: 0 hectare
    Entry into operation: 1981
    Description:
    The Sárospatak Calvinistic Dormitory was established in 1531. Its school garden (on the opposite side of the entrance of the dormitory) is a 7 hectare big park, which is a nature conservation area, involving the area of the Kossuth, Transylvanian dormitory and the old school garden. Originally, teaching was inherent – where the afforestation was started in the 1860’s – in the school garden. The old plant substance of the garden is the residue of the Füvész garden, and the park building memory of the middle of the XX. century. 3 tall ashes (Fraxinus excelsior) and 9 linden trees (Tilia spp.) remained after the first afforestation. We can also find exot species in its plant substance (e.g. small leaf lindens Tilia cordata), black walnut (Juglans nigra), high ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Tisza tree (Taxus baccata), silver linden (Tilia tomentosa) -avenue). According to dendrologist János Wagner, the hybrid of small leaf and silver lindens – which stand in the south-eastern part of the park – is unique in our country. The other special linden tree is the (Tilia cordata varietas Major) which we can find here. Besides all these, the sad version of the high ash and a hundread year old Tisza tree stands in the garden. We can find the former famous Patak student’s statues in the statue park, which was created in the park area: Zsuzsanna Lorántffy, Mária Palóczi Horváth and Simon, II. Ferenc Rákóczi, Lajos Kossuth, János Erdélyi, Ferenc Kazinczy, Lajos Kazinczy, Gábor Kazinczy, Mihály Csokonai Vitéz, Mihály Tompa, Ede Tóth, János Komáromi, Zsigmond Móricz. The gymnasium of the dormitory can be found in the middle of the school garden. Two black pine (Pinus nigra) stand right next to the gym, these were set during the orginal establishment. Nowadays, the substance of the garden is mostly from early maple trees (Acer platanoides), a 60 year old avenue goes around the edge of the garden, with silver lindens (T. tomentosa). We can find approximately 50 tree- and shrub species, the dominant in the tree substance is the linden (Tilia spp.), the conker (Aesculus hippocastanum), the mountain maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), silver fir (Picea pungens), birch tree (Betula pendula), ash (Frasinus spp.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus). Lifetime of the silver linden and the large leaf ash avenues is more than 70 years.

  3. SÁROSPATAK – PLANT LIFE OF MANDULÁS

    Herdbook datas:
    Name: Plant life of Mandulás
    Herdbook number: 4/41/TT/84
    County: Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén
    Settlement: Sárospatak
    Topographical number of the affected continent: 0769/1
    EOV coordinates: X: 334260; Y: 835232
    Immunity level: locally important
    Defence category: TT
    Extent: 6.7 hectare
    Increasingly protected from this: 0 hectare
    Entry into operation: 1984
    Description:
    From the so-called socage maps, on the pages that shows Sárospatak, – coming from the court record offices – the little, vulcanic mountain on the south foot of Zempléni-mountain is already being called Mandulás int he 1800’s. The 150 m high Mandulás probably got its name after the former blooming dwarfish almond, or maybe after the almonds that were planted to the rich parts of the hill. We don’t know the exact economical and social advantage of this hill, but little parcel vineyards, orchards can be surely found centuries ago at the skirt of the hill. It is conceivable, that its grasses were grazed recently, and it can be presumed from the cross – standing near to the top – that it was a place of pilmgrimage. Its last utilization was that the hill composing andesite has been mined somewhere in the middle of the XX. century, but now the production has stopped in this mine; later the abandoned mine was used for shooting range. It has got its nature conservation protection in 1984, then after our country joined the European Union, it was added to the areas of Natura 2000 according to the list of habitat protection guideline.
    Since the top parts of Mandulás is rocky, hardly and can’t be cultivated, the areal significant vegetation stayed up. Exactly this rocky steppe slope gives the most significant natural values of the area, namely this hill – besides the neighbour Szemince-moutain – can be described as a last shelter for many protected plant substance in the area. The following eurasian and mediterranean flora units – which are protected in our country – live here: phlomis (Phlomis tuberosa), longleaf feathergrass (Stipa tirsa), tiny iris (Iris pumila), orchis (Orchis morio), Danube carnation (Dianthus deltoides), white broom (Chamaecytisus albus), rock grass loving hungarian stonestring (Minuartia frutescens). The masses of mountain pulsatillas and the silky coated blowing pasque flowers (Pulsatilla grandis, P. montana) are also remarkable from the botanical values. Besides the plant life, some protected animal species are also significant in this little slope steppe spot. The swallow-tailed butterfly (Papilio machaon) – which loves the shaded plant species – and its relative, the sworded butterfly (Iphiclides podalirius) are flying around the top of Mandulás, the praying mantises (Mantis religiosa) are hunting between the feathergrasses, while the green lizards (Lacerta viridis) are zigzagging in the rocky parts. Several songbird nests in the shrubbing, lower areas, which from the thorn-piercing shrike (Lanius collurio), the sparrowhawk (Sylvia nisoria), the yellow-hammer (Emberiza citrinella) are emphasized important. The presence of the forest lark can be certified with its significant trilling sing in the spring, it lives in the area of grasses and abandoned wine cellars. The frequent burning, shrubbing and afforestation dangers the rich wildlife of Mandulás in each areas. The afforestation causes problems mostly on those areas, where the indigenous shrub species and acacias (Robinia pseudoacacia) are spreading agressively. The nitrogen enrichment – caused by this species – completely changes the original vegetation of Mandulás, so nature conservational treatment is necessary. In the course of this, for the interest of the hill’s plant- and wildlife, shrub-cleaning, maybe grazing and the elimination of the acacia offsprings became necessary. Unfortunately, its likely that the use of chemicals is unavoidable for the final elimination of acacias.
    Since this local protection preferred small hill can be found right next to Sárospatak, it could be a favorable target for forest schools, or maybe for eco tourist programs. Excellent circle panorama opens from its top towards Sárospatak, Bodrogköz and the Zempléni-mountain, because of its treeless environment, so it could be a destination for smaller trips, but all of these utilizations are only recommended after the approach protection of the mine boundary. Two short cavities are kept count by cavers in the andesite mine of Mandulás, which from one is natural cliff cleft, and the other one is a smaller cavity, created during the blasting process.

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