Area of the Sárospatak micro region belongs to the Tisza catchment, which possesses two significant waterflow, the Bodrog and the Tisza. Lakes, arising from the micro region’s mountain areas are all flowing to the Bodrog, their water output is balancing. Water system of Bodrog is fully unique, thanks to the significant water organization, that went down from the middle of the 1800’s and lasted until the end of the 20th century. Several bound mort lakes and backwaters guide the Bodrog, the saved side is meshed by canals and drain ditches.

Four subunit shares from Tisza catchment in the area of the micro region:

Catchment subunit name

Area(km2)

Area ratio (%)

2-17 Hortobágy-Berettyó

0,32476

0,068

2-7 Hernád, Takta

1,70466

0,358

2-4 Bodrogköz

219,08833

46,002

2-5 Tokaj-hegyalja

255,14243

53,572

Összesen

476,26019

100

The V. map attachment shows the dissection of the micro region area catchment subunit, and part catchment.

The VI. map attachment shows the hydrographic relations of the micro region

  1. SPECIFICATION OF THE RIGHT COAST WATERFLOW OF BODROG
    Waterflows
    Several well emerges in the highlands of the micro region, which waters – depending on water output, -reinforcement – are being led by periodic or permanent water lakes, which downfalls soften as we head towards Bodrog. After they leave the foot of the mountain, they progressively approach the recipient by leaving their alluvium behind. Water movement of the lakes are irregular, it strongly depends on the weather, due to the geological structure of catchments, the mountain range can not store the falling moisture for a longer period of time. The temporal arrangement of floodings also shows change in the conventional, post snow melt, spring and pre-summer high waters. The floodings alter because of the slightly changing and extreme weather conditions, usual phenomenons are bigger storms, post-cloudburst flash floodings. Changing of the area’s land usage and surface coverage enhances the effect of all these. At the same time, each lake dries up – smaller – by the effect of long-lasting droughts – possibly for months. Also contributes to all this, that bigger yield wells are being encased, and their waters are led away by the purpose of drinking water supply.
    Stillwaters
    Only few mort lakes, as well as man-made former quarries (Megyer-mountain tarn) can be mentinoned as significant stillwaters in the right coast catchment of Bodrog which belongs to the micro region.
    Waters under the surface
    Underground waters are gathering near the highlands, accurately at the valley foots, 1-2 meters deep. The standard of the ground water level at the mountain foot areas syncronises increasingly as it moves towards Bodrog.
  2. SPECIFICATION OF BODROGKÖZ WATER SYSTEM
    Water system
    The natural water system of Bodrogköz can’t be declared as dense, because of the incidence of perme able (water-permeable) rocks and the relatively poor moisture. The hydrographic conditons of Bodrogköz are defined by the water walk of Tisza and Bodrog. Yearly, at least two significant flood wave flows down on both rivers: they occur due to spring floodings and snow melts, and in the beginning of summer, a slight water yield increase (green flood) can be experienced due to wetter weather. The spring flood wave runs into green flood at the Bodrogköz section of Tisza, so there isn’t any water level decrease in between the two high water. During the flooding period, it is necessary to pump and put over the moisture and the underground water from the saved side to the floodplain to prevent any significant internal waterings. The damming effect of the Tiszalök power plant (which was built in the 1950’s) significantly contributes to the formation of high water level which can be declared as permanent related to the natural. The micro region affects a part of the Bodrogzug area. The XIX. century river regulation works affected the area lesser, than the northern parts of Bodrogköz or the country’s other floodplains. Since there is no dam along on this side of Bodrog, the area is still washed by the river regularly, so natural processes are still significant nowadays in the surface development. Bodrogzug is the biggest, pre-flood control water walk preserving, opened flood basin of Hungary. The nearly completely flat Bodrogzug’s Tisza shore is a few hundred meters wide, and the area of the 96 mBf high „river back” holds back the lesser water level rises of Tisza. In this case, the Tisza flooding doesn’t reach into the Bodrogzug immediatly. The lesser Tisza flooding (by bloating back the level of Bodrog) causes an overflow in the inner areas through the initiative canals (Little-Bodrog, Zsaró-vein, Bonyika-ditch, Iván-ditch). Only higher than 96.5 mBf level flooding flows directly into Bodrogzug, but in this case, the whole flood basin is under higher than 1 m flooding. In case of fast flooding, the Bodrog flows back in the jugular section, and when big floodings occur, the water of Tisza flows into the flood basin between the houses of Zalkod municipality’s southern end, where the water level is even lower at that time. The marsh, dead bed, vein gashed area is often flooded a year, so there isn’t any permanent habitation or settlement on it. The vascular system still exists, which was used for creating drain canals in several places in the past decades, but most of them are filled up and became sludgy because of the alluvium carrying floodings.

    Waterflows
    On today’s place of the area’s waterflows are pretty young. The two most significant rivers of Bodrogköz: Tisza and Bodrog – which two partly forms the natural borders – are also flowing in a deeply cut structural lined, typically middle-section style river bed. However, the curves are wandering in the flow direction really fast, – especially in the Tisza – because the shores are made of loose materials, and here the falling is also important (1cm/km). The notable point of the area is the Tokaj-gate, whose „door-post” is the Kopasz-mountain, and the other one is the northern end of the Pannónia hill range, which draws below the Hajdúság. The Tokaj-gate herds all the rivers, which come from the north-eastern Kárpátok and then it leads them to the Tisza.
    2 % frequent high water yield of Tisza is 4000 m3/s, which can be declared high in home relation. Maximal water level occurs in April, and the minimum is in September. Its drop was pretty small (4,6 cm/km) before the regulation, therefore it layed some parts of its alluvium, and it moved in this frequently revolving back – it often fell apart into more bastard lines during the flooding. Its curves evolved strongly in both directions, and shifted constantly in the flow direction. Its’ today bed was almost straightened. But the maximal level of floodings was 2-3.5 m lower before the regulation, the low water level was 2-2.5 m higher, than after the regulation, i.e. the water walk was much more balanced. Time of the floodings (post snow melt and early summer „green flood”) didn’t change, but its duration did: The flood before the regulation topped and lasted longer, because of the smaller drop, the further path and the run-out to the flood basin. It is specific to today’s Tisza water walk, that the maximum of the floodings happens to be in December, February and July, while the low water maximums appear in autumn (September, November).
    The other boundary river of the area is Bodrog, which gathers the waters of Latorca, Ung, Laborc, Ondava and Tapoly, it flows into the Tisza at Tokaj. Essentially, the Bodrog is formed at the border of Bodrogköz, so-called river without a well: the Ondava, reinforced by Tapoly and the Latorca (which carries Laborc with itself) meet each other above Saint Marie and then it flows ahead with the name of Bodrog. It carries a big amount of water, because its catchment is too wet, but the high cistern ability of the alluvial fan lengthens the flood wave and softens its hastiness. Its drop was only 3.5 cm/km before the regulation, but the filling effect was lesser, and it didn’t formed any island, only reefs, because its source rivers were dumped their alluvium before. But its line was led badly during the regulation, so its bed is filling up with the accessing alluvium which comes from the Zempléni mountain range. Today’s water walk of Bodrog is being affected by the Tiszalök bloating through the Tisza. A double, febuary-april culmination can be shown in Bodrog, which first period is snow melting, and its second period is nourished by spring moisture. There is a 1 km wide, opened flood basin left free by the purpose of emergency storage, because the alluvium fan zone softens the hastiness of the river’s water walk, but it lengthens the duration of the flood waves, which prevents the march of Tisza floodings. The height of the Tisza flood waves softens by the collected water masses.

    Stillwaters
    Abandoned river beds, mort lakes
    Despite, that the level difference is relatively small on the alluvial formations of Bodrogköz, the surface is not monotone at all areas. The reason of this is that there are a lot of abandoned river beds, bed portions, mort lakes in this part of the small land. In tortuous rivers, like Tisza and Bodrog, it is necessary that the overdeveloped curves are capped in the course of bigger floods and they become mort lakes later. Since the rivers have changed their directions more than once in the past 16000-18000 years in Bodrogköz, we can see abandoned river beds, bed portions, mort lakes in various directions, although the decisive majority of these can be found behind the flood basin of the flood defense line, the former bed branches, mort lakes have been topped up, their waters have been drained. The older, abandoned river beds are barely visible now in some places, because they have been topped up that much. The youngest and nicely advanced mort lakes can be found next to Bodrog. The abandoned river beds, mort lakes are mainly filled in with muddy-clayey residue, in other places with delicate and fine grained sand immigration.

    Deeper-lying areas between the river backs
    The deeper-lying surface of Bodrogköz is divided into more pieces. Namely, the rivers which change their river beds have created river backs, that penetrate in between the deeper areas. Internal waters are relatively common in each part of the deep-lying areas (between the river backs).

    Waters under the surface
    In Bodrogköz, it is generally inherent, that underground water is high in big areas. According to drilling readings, its depth is usually 1-3 m, there are only few which is closer than 1 m to the surface, these can be found inside the plain drillings. However, ground water level can be found 3-5 m deep in emergent sand islands. Depth of the ground water level in the area is 4-5 m deep along the Tisza, but these drillings are deepened on the top of the highbank, and ground water is almosst at the level of Tisza. Ground water of the clayey surface areas is under pressure, water level is increasing inside the borehole after the drilling of the impermeable layer. Periodic dynamic fluctuation can also be experienced, which is the greatest in the Tisza and Bodrog river extension. Regarding the yearly period, the most intensive water level increase is in february, then it reaches the maximum after the wintery months in march and may, and in september-november its minimum. In wetter years, underground water mirror (in many places) can be found just only 0.5 m deep under the surface. Underground water is 2 m high along the canals, and it follows the bulge of the surface in the sand mound areas.

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